Short Horn cattle (Bos taurus longifrons*) possibly appears first in Swiss Late Neolithic pile dwelling communities several hundred years before the Beaker Age.** However, it is with the Beakers that the brachyceros (so named in continental Europe) spreads and emerges as the backbone of the Beaker economy, almost by the square inch.
|Fig 14. Popular Anglo-American Beef - Hereford, Angus and Ayeshire|
The short horn is agreed to have been primarily a dairy cow, although intermixture has produced a large variety of modern beef cattle, such as the ones above. One of the complicating aspects of its history is that its appearance in the historical record is near simultaneous in Europe, Egypt and the Near East.
Beakers were über dairyists, to the point that it was a defining feature of their culture. This is visible in the pottery record and inferred from the archaeo-genetic record. Their legacy defines the genetics of modern Europe as well as its regional hyper-diversity of diary products.
Before the Beakers, almost zero people in North or West Europe were lactase persisent. After the Beakers (the full trajectory is not yet clear), basically a situation exists in which most modern people are lactase persisent. If you remove immigrant populations from the equation, the trait essentially defines the genetic situation of native peoples. (academia continues to flounder with evolutionary explanations for the sudden rise of European LP, which is virtually non-existent before the copper age, which basically means - get a bigger shoe horn. See their LBK explanation [here])
A number of evolutionary zoologists have viewed the introduction of short horns into Europe as coming from North Africa via Southern Iberia around 3,000 B.C. (Grigg, 1972) The European short horns have their immediate relatives in the Libyan Shorthorn, Brown Atlas, Moroccan Blonde and n'damas. Further south, most short horns have been crossed with Zebu (indicus) for heat tolerance (as is common in the Southern United States with Angus (second pane) with Brahman (indicus) to create the hearty Brangus, etc).
More to come on cow teats and wagons as I clean out the back pages!
BTW, decent overview on cattle world:
On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources, Diversity 2014, 6(4), 705-750; Felius et al, [Link]
* The history of the latin of this animal is complicated. Longifrons (long-face), brachycephlos (subtype shorthead), and both conventions are various categorized under primagenius and taurus. Should not be confused with bos brachycephlos, which is a minature, cow-like buffalo of Northern Nubia. Longifrons is also known as Celtic cattle.
** The first short horns were excavated in 1844 from Late Neolithic Pile Dwelling communities of Lake Constance.