Here's a breakdown of "The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwestern Europe". It's a pre-print at bioRxiv [here]
If you are new to this and don't really know much about the Beakerfolk or the European Neolithic/Bronze Age transition, I'll only say that this paper is possibly the most significant academic paper on this subject since it was first well-defined.
Beaker pottery spread across western and central Europe beginning
around 2750 BCE before disappearing between 2200-1800 BCE. The mechanism
of its expansion is a topic of long-standing debate, with support for
both cultural diffusion and human migration. We present new genome-wide
ancient DNA data from 170 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age
Europeans, including 100 Beaker-associated individuals. In contrast to
the Corded Ware Complex, which has previously been identified as
arriving in central Europe following migration from the east, we observe
limited genetic affinity between Iberian and central European Beaker
Complex-associated individuals, and thus exclude migration as a
significant mechanism of spread between these two regions. However,
human migration did have an important role in the further dissemination
of the Beaker Complex, which we document most clearly in Britain using
data from 80 newly reported individuals dating to 3900-1200 BCE. British
Neolithic farmers were genetically similar to contemporary populations
in continental Europe and in particular to Neolithic Iberians,
suggesting that a portion of the farmer ancestry in Britain came from
the Mediterranean rather than the Danubian route of farming expansion.
Beginning with the Beaker period, and continuing through the Bronze Age,
all British individuals harboured high proportions of Steppe ancestry
and were genetically closely related to Beaker-associated individuals
from the Lower Rhine area. We use these observations to show that the
spread of the Beaker Complex to Britain was mediated by migration from
the continent that replaced >90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool
within a few hundred years, continuing the process that brought Steppe
ancestry into central and northern Europe 400 years earlier.
This might be helpful in the meantime.
Here's the blog link to the second paper by Timson et al, 2014
- Ok, so I was wrong. Lactase Persistence is very low even in the British Bronze Age!! What!
- They absolutely, positively, unequivocally exclude admixture from
Iberia (Neolithic ancestry of Beakers, they say is more similar to LBK
populations (actually GAC and TRB).
- Iberian Beakers have zero steppe admixture (except two girls in the North)
- Dutch and British Beakers are identical
- 95% of British Beakers are R1b P312. However, this reduces in the MBA to 75%
- 93.5% population replacement. Wow again. (Keep in mind this may be relative to immigration)
- British Beakers were more vanilla and then became increasingly so.
Europe, Steppe ancestry was widespread and we can exclude a substantial
contribution from Iberian Beaker Complex-associated individuals,
contradicting initial suggestions of gene flow between these groups
based on analysis of mtDNA and dental morphology"
be interesting to see how the Dulias paper approaches this problem.
H1, H3 and V in British individuals can't be Neolithic native, probably
aren't Iberia (AFTER ALL), so what does this mean?
- R1b completely absent in Neolithic British samples n=20
- I2a nearly completely absent in British EBA (which is admittedly biased for diagnostic BC)
- No R1a in NE Scottish Beakers.
I'm looking at the mtdna of Beaker
individuals. Excluding the questions traditionally circling H1, H3 and
V, a lot of the rest of it looks surprisingly steppe-like.
After reading through the first time and
looking at the Balkans paper, several things ranging from 1) effectively
proven to 2) more likely with new factual weight being added, now seem
- Beaker appears to have come directly from the Pontic-Caspian steppe
while absorbing LBK-like or admixed ancestry. Census estimates and other
data supports this.
- Many of their mito-profiles look steppic.
- The Ukraine looks mixed
- Skin, eyes and LP basically identical to Yamnaya, changes over time. (Which I still don't get)
- Not a trickle of people. Waves of immigrants first into Europe,
then the isles with massive population increases following (older papers
- Areas of Europe less affected initially get theirs in the Bronze Age.
- U106 ~= Veluwe Beakers
Looking a little closer at the Iberian remains/contexts associated with Beaker culture.
it should be understood that the remains and contexts are what they
are. Plus, even with messy and uncertain contexts, certain ancestry
would or wouldn't be there, so this is not a criticism for including
these particular remains. I'm bit surprised at how loose the
connections seem between people who look like otherwise ordinary
Neolithic Iberians and Beaker associated artifacts.
In other words, these are mostly collective tombs and caves with complex and disturbed deposits.
Here's a few of those and the identifications, the first two bolded are R1b with no steppe admixture, the second two are girls with steppe admixture)
- Galeria da cisterna, tomb (I0839 and I0840)
- Cova da Moura, cave (I4229)
- Paris Steet, Barcelona (I0257
, I0258, I0260, I0261
, I0262, I0263, I0823, I0825, I0826 and I1553)
- Arroyal I, Burgos (tomb Roy5 (I0462)
girl with first steppe admixture in Iberia. Also (I0458, I0459, I0460, I0461
- Camino de las Yeseras (a flat head woman I4245)
- I4247 (collective inhumation)
- Camino del Molino, Caravaca de la Cruz (I0453)
Olalde authors made a compelling case that the source of Neolithic
admixture in Beakers was largely LBK-based (simply meaning Northern
Europe - and actually more close to a mix of Globular Amphora and Funnelbeaker ancestry which may be more directly indicative of significant Corded Ware ancestry of Northern Europe). Very compelling. However, I am not really sure that a single
individual, other than the woman from Camino de las Yeseras, was
actually a truly diagnostic Beaker.
I'm not saying this
picture will change much with more testing, but I do believe steppe
ancestry is in Iberia and it may be more elusive.
The authors confirm that the approach to understanding mobility through isotopes is that first generation movers are always going to be few and far between, even when ~93% of a population is immigrant descended. Valuable data, just needs interpretation beyond turtle-level cautious.
This is interesting. The burial of "Rue de Phaffenheim" is of a 30 year old woman (I1391) who was buried in the supine position with legs flexed right, very similar in format to a Yamana burial, although she is from the mature Beaker phase.
A fascinating aspect of her vestment is that many v-perforated buttons dot the right hemithorax. In other words, she wore what appears to have been a right-buttoning sweater, coat or blouse. Before the modern era, the gender-differentiation of button and belts may have been like men for both sexes, because we are right handed. So this may be something to look into later
I added a picture and a source on the Archer from France (I1390). He's also the very first burial on the burials page at the top of the blog "30 Beaker Burials". He was buried with a quiver of arrows. Genetic testing proved that a young man (I1389) buried near him was a first degree relative, probably his brother, since they both have also have the same mtdna X2b4a.
In fact, the radiocarbon dates may suggest they were closer in age in life, than the time difference in death. (Lines 270 and 271 in Supp. 1)
|La Fare (Forcalquier, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) (photo Lemercier) S14/I2575 Y-unsucessful? mtdna - K1c1|
Notice the copper knife behind the ear of this French Bell Beaker of the Rhone-Ouvèze group. He was about 5.6 feet or 1.72 meters tall and a "so-called "alpine" cranial architectural type". In other words, he had a big, weird Beaker-head. More pictures on Burials page 2.
Here's the text: "Le Campaniforme dans le sud-est de la France
The Italian Beaker from Parma may be described in this document [here]
I believe. He was (I2478) R1b1a1a2a1a2 - K1a2a. Other men were present and fairly seasoned 50's and 60's of age.
Another unusual situation where a man has been buried as a woman. You'll remember previously a similar situation in the Allentoft paper concerning Kněževes - grave 8
who was a woman buried as a man, with man gear (genetically confirmed a woman). This has been reported in the CWC as well.
In this case, the man in Grave 1 (line 675 of the Supp. 1) was buried in the female, head-south format with a copper awl, something only Beaker women have been buried with. The other individuals of the cemetery were buried according to normal rites.
Since they did not appear to DNA test grave 1, I'm not sure if the archaeologist's determination was based on skeletal metrics or confirmed through DNA and not published. I'd be cautious in projecting too much here. There's a lot of weird stuff to explore with regard to graves 1) cosmology 2) coming of age 3) married vs. non-married 4) honored and dishonored 5) priestly people and interestingly, 6) noncommunicants, it seems at times.
When looking closer at the Beaker y-chromosomes, the haplogroup frequency becomes more extreme. Here's what I mean:
(I1767) is a young male that is the only British male associated with a non-R1b haplotype in the Beaker period from this study. He's I2a2a1a1a. Besides his radiocarbon date, his grave contains no diagnostics other than he was a single burial, and he and a female were not in a gender direction (which doesn't necessarily mean anything in Britain). Not really relevant but interesting, he was intentionally mummified.
(I2364) was a male from a double grave, head south on the western bank of the Danube around Budapest, Hungary. While he's buried in a large cemetery that contains Beakers, only a small fraction of those graves actually have diagnostic goods, his didn't. He was Y-chromosome H2.
That leaves two more Hungarian Beakers: (I2786) who was definitely a Bell Beaker having I2a2a, and (I3528) who was probably so G2a2a1a2a1. One German Beaker (E09538) G2a2a1a2a1a.
I'm totally excluding the Iberian collective contexts where 8 y-chromosomes were published. I'm just not totally confident that these folks represent people who were ever associated with Beaker cultural materials. Totally shooting from the hip, but a number as extreme a 3/42 BBC males being associated with non-R1b male lines seems possible.
So what is that like anyway, 0.7%? But keep in mind that the non-Iberian Beakers all had steppe admixture, so that would raise that number a little with a more reasonable criteria. Plus, these are just Beakers, not all Western Europeans.
I'm surprised and intrigued by the absence of Corded Ware Culture R1a lineages, especially in Scotland, the Netherlands and Germany. This presents a whopping dilemma. It would seem very reasonable to believe that BBC had CWC ancestry, but I'm not sure that math works.
As soon as the genomes are available, we'll see some improved or alternate models. Also, there's more Beaker genomes coming!
"The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe"
Iñigo Olalde, Selina Brace, Morten E. Allentoft, Ian Armit, Kristian Kristiansen, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Thomas Booth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Alissa Mittnik, Eveline Altena, Mark Lipson, Iosif Lazaridis, Nick J. Patterson, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Yoan Diekmann, Zuzana Faltyskova, Daniel M. Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Peter de Knijff, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Kristin Stewardson, Alistair Barclay, Kurt W. Alt, Azucena Avilés Fernández, Eszter Bánffy, Maria Bernabò-Brea, David Billoin, Concepción Blasco, Clive Bonsall, Laura Bonsall, Tim Allen, Lindsey Büster, Sophie Carver, Laura Castells Navarro, Oliver Edward Craig, Gordon T. Cook, Barry Cunliffe, Anthony Denaire, Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy, Natasha Dodwell, Michal Ernée, Christopher Evans, Milan Kuchařík, Joan Francès Farré, Harry Fokkens, Chris Fowler, Michiel Gazenbeek, Rafael Garrido Pena, María Haber-Uriarte, Elżbieta Haduch, Gill Hey, Nick Jowett, Timothy Knowles, Ken Massy, Saskia Pfrengle, Philippe Lefranc, Olivier Lemercier, Arnaud Lefebvre, Joaquín Lomba Maurandi, Tona Majó, Jacqueline I. McKinley, Kathleen McSweeney, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Alessandra Modi, Gabriella Kulcsár, Viktória Kiss, András Czene, Róbert Patay, Anna Endródi, Kitti Köhler, Tamás Hajdu, João Luís Cardoso, Corina Liesau, Michael Parker Pearson, Piotr Włodarczak, T. Douglas Price, Pilar Prieto, Pierre-Jérôme Rey, Patricia Ríos, Roberto Risch, Manuel A. Rojo Guerra, Aurore Schmitt, Joël Serralongue, Ana Maria Silva, Václav Smrčka, Luc Vergnaud, João Zilhão, David Caramelli, Thomas Higham, Volker Heyd, Alison Sheridan, Karl-Göran Sjögren, Mark G. Thomas, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Ron Pinhasi, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, Ian Barnes, Carles Lalueza-Fox, David Reich