|Beaker inspired Kerma Ware? (1900 BC Nubia, Jan Turek?)
Over a week ago, Razib Khan talked about this new paper "The peopling of the last Green Saraha revealed by high-coverage resequencing of trans-Saharan patrilineages" by D'Atanasio et al, 2018.
In it, the authors attribute the star-like explosion of R1b-V88 in the Green Sahara to a rather recent coalescence period about 5,000 ago with an entrance from Sardinia (or S. Europe) ranging between this coalescence age and something up to two thousand years earlier. I previously called the curious presence of R1b in the circum-Sahara a "grass fire pattern" phenomenon.
Here's what the D'Antanasio authors wrote:
"The peculiar topology of the R-V88 sequenced samples suggests that the diffusion of this haplogroup was quite rapid and possibly triggered by the Saharan favourable climate"After this back-coalescence date, the Sahara began a rapid desiccation with some fairly strong pulses of catastrophic and permanent drought. That event is revealed in the structure of V88's African phylogeny. The D'Antanasio people rightly figure that the remnant of this dead zone can be partially re-created by looking at moderns in the peripheries. Very clearly they believe that R1b-V88, now common among certain cattle pastoralist nations across the Sahel, are partially descended from populations that once populated this region.
Before jumping through the computer with a retort, a commentor on Anthrogenica asks this very reasonable question in response (translated):
"The question remains unanswered, where did [V88] cross the Mediterranean and why is it the only one of the old [European] haplogroups to have done it with success...?"If D'Antanasio is correct that African V88 plugs into a larger European phylogeny of a certain age, then why is this one child clade found dominating certain cattle communities in Africa, but not a single one from the alphabet of European or Near Eastern lineages? From an archaeological standpoint, at what point in the Holocene is this directionality in either direction possible?
Let me ask directly. Does African V88 find its source in the Beaker communities of Iberia and the Mediterranean Islands? Does it find its source in Southwest Iberia in the centuries before this?
This comment is not to suggest any direct relationship with the following culture, but it does ask if the stylistic influences of the Bell Beakers were close enough in proximity that their decoration was recognizable to distant others. Here, in a paper entitled "The Beaker World and Otherness of the Early Civilizations", Jan Turek makes this comment:
"...in Nubia (namely in the present-day Sudan) began at this time, the development of Kerma Culture (Early Kerma, group C, Phase Ia-b 2500-2050 BC). Ceramic of the Kerma culture has a remarkably similar ornaments as the Late Neolithic Saharan pottery and Bell Beaker in Northwestern Africa and Europe."The last quote was added partly because of the convenience of having a convenient graphic available, but also it shows that beyond permanent settlements and pit graves that Beaker traders, long hunters and family bands could be found in the reaches. Some people of the Saraha at this time are V88; connecting too many dots?
Honestly, I do not know the answer to the V88 question. Right now it could still be partially associated with the Cardium expansion, but the window of possibilities continues to narrow.