Since there's some interest in comparing Dutch and British Beaker genomes, I'll start with some excerpts from Alison Sheridan's chapter entitled "Scottish Beaker Dates: The Good, The Bad and the Ugly"
|Dutch-style (National Museum of Scotland via Sheridan Fig 9, Ch 11)|
"This Dutch-style Beaker [11.9 AOO herringbone low-carinated beaker] was found in a Dutch-style grave, with a penannular ditch and a central rectangular grave-pit, the grave being covered by a small, low mound of large pebbles...The acid soild had destroyed all traces of the associated, E-W-orientated body, which had been buried in a very thin coffin, possibly...as its excavators pointed out... is reminiscent of that associated with Protruding Foot Beakers in the Netherlands."
I'd suppose that other low-carinated beaker burials would have similar profiles to this dissolved grave at Newmill, Perth & Kinross, such as I5367 Sorisdale on Coll. Maybe Scottish Beakers are a suitable proxy for PFB's? I was surprised that these guys weren't popping out a few typical CWC lineages, but that isn't the case yet. Sheridan gives another examples of a CW-looking pots, such a Biggar Common on page 104-105, but notes that Sorisdale is the only example with human remains of these early Dutchmen in the Northeast of Scotland using Needham's scheme. (see also Upper Largie and Dutch-Scottish connections during the Beaker period - Sheridan)
Sheridan speculates the earliest pioneers aren't well represented by cist graves which is why the style sequence should have a bit more weight in determining the earliest immigration.
*Day 2, a.m. A few more excerpts from Sheridan.
"The second is that the dating evidence now available confirms earlier suspicions (as expressed, for example, by Ian Shepherd in 1986) that there had been a design influence from the Netherlands to north-east Scotland during the last three centuries of the third millennium - in addition to any previous Dutch (or other Continental) influence on Scottish/British beaker design."
"Clarke and Case (e.g. Case 2004) have argued for a possible lower Rhine conduit for the ultimately north European fashion of using battle axeheads as grave goods; and Needham has argued for the presence of a Veluwe-style Beaker, along with a tanged copper knife closely comparable with Dutch examples, at Shrewton"
The paper is worth reading several times over for a picture of Scotland.
*Day 3, mid-day
A few excerpts from Sheridan in "Upper Largie and Dutch-Scottish connections during the Beaker period. [Also a quite note, Sheridan mentions on 254 that Sorisdale is isotopically an immigrant and the geology of the Netherlands cannont be ruled out]
"The Beaker grave at Upper Largie represents a striking novelty in funerary practice and associated material culture, owing nothing to pre-existing traditions in Scotland. While it stands out as being different from most Scottish Beaker graves [and the earliest]... several of its features immediately recall Dutch funerary practice of the mid-third millennium BC... The practice of burying the deceased in a timber chamber or coffin in a pit... ring ditch...posts in fill....round barrow... [shortening comments].... is characteristic of the Single Grave Culture which preceded the Bell Beaker Culture, but whose traditions persisted into the latter, in the Netherlands. [shortening again]... points forcefully to the Lower Rhine Basin."
The arguments made by Sheridan in this paper are difficult to condense, but here's from the conclusion:
"The fact that the early Beaker period graves described above represent such a striking novelty within mid-third millennium Scotland, and point so forcefully towards the Netherlands as the place of origin for their occupants, raises the very real possibility that we are dealing with Dutch immigrants during or around the 25th century BC. Of course, the idea of incoming 'Beaker people', for so long unfashionable in Britain, has been revived by the evidence from the famous 'Amesbury Archer' in Wiltshire, who appears to have been and immigrant from central Europe, possibly Bavaria (Fitzpatrick 2002)."