"It is noteworthy that the R1b occurred first after the Middle Chalcolithic in Transdanubia. (Late Chalcolithic has not been not examined yet, and so a hiatus remains between the Middle Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age data.) The two R1b samples are dated to the Vučedol period (~2,870-2,580 cal BC) and to the Gáta/Wieslburg culture (~1,950- 1,760 cal BC). R1b is the most frequent haplogroup in today’s Europe, with a frequency peak in Western Europe (Balaresque et al., 2010). From prehistoric context, this haplogroup is known from the Late Neolithic Central Germany (Bell Beaker culture, Lee et al., 2012). The theory that R1b reached Central Europe (and possibly the Carpathian Basin as well) with the Bell Beaker migration, starting from southwestern Europe (Brandt et al., 2014) seems to be collapsing, as R1b (M269) has recently been found in Yamnaya (3,300-2,700 cal BC) population on the Russian steppe as well (Haak et al., 2015)."
Gimbutas) and the Vučedol is one that were influenced by the same (and Corded Ware).
Late Morning Update 2
Szecsenyi-Nagy comments on the complete absence of haplogroup R1b before the Middle Chalcolithic. R1b frequency must have been extremely low if present at all before this time in the Western Carpathian region.
The man from Lánycsók, Csata-alja (M6-116.8) 2800-2600 would most likely descend from the Western Steppe depending on the exact date and since he is not a Bell Beaker. Clearly this is a foreign lineage detected in this area for the first time.
This shows, though not conclusively, that R1b also expanded from the Steppe, and that the western-most fringe of Yamnaya could have been predominantly R1b in addition to its Eastern end. Still too early to tell.
One thing to point out is that Bell Beaker is nearly contemporary with the earliest phase of Vučedol on the opposite end of the continent and the miscegenation that Gimbutas thought to occur between Steppe herders and Vučedol farmer/metallurgists over several hundred years to create Bell Beakers (based on typology) is in fact conclusively wrong as demonstrated by radio dates. This is no different from Bosch-Gimpera's starting Bell Beaker in Western Iberia based on Early Neolithic Epi-Cardial pottery typology.
That doesn't mean the underlying conclusion of either is not correct, because there are other evidences for both, but that specific argument is no longer valid. There are other arguments to be made for a Hungarian expansion, and have been made, begleitkeramik, buttons or encrusted ceramic.
Unleash the arrow-mappers!
RADIOCARBON DATING OF THE VUCEDOL CULTURE COMPLEX, ALEKSANDAR DURMAN, 1989
Molecular genetic investigation of the Neolithic population history in the western Carpathian Basin
Szecsenyi-Nagy, Anna <Link
The focus of this thesis is the Neolithic in the western Carpathian Basin, more precisely the western part of today’s Hungary, which also called as Transdanubia.rnThe aims of this work are to study the genetic diversity of the Neolithic and Early/Middle Chalcolithic cultures’ populations (sixth-fifth millennia BC) in Transdanubia from both the mtDNA and Y-chromosome perspectives, and to specify the main population genetic events during this period. Closer observing the Transdanubian sample set, the genetic regional differences are also examined. Further topic is the genetic investigation of the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition and the origin of the southeastern European Starčevo farmers. I also aim to compare the Transdanubian results with prehistoric data, especially with the European pre-Neolithic and the Central European Neolithic datasets. The parallel analyses of the mtDNA and the Y-chromosome raise the question, whether men and women had different migration patterns or Neolithisation histories. rnAltogether 32 Mesolithic, Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeological sites were included in the sampling, which encompassed 323 individuals or skeletal remains from the western Carpathian Basin. Samples from 298 individuals were processed in the archaeogenetic laboratories of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. Following strict standards of the clean laboratory work and reproducing the results from at least two samples per skeleton, authenticated aDNA haplotype of the mtDNA HVS-I region were obtained in 256 cases. Furthermore, the HVS-II region sequences of 80 individuals were reproduced, detecting potential intra-site maternally kinship relations. Endogenous aDNA sequences were verified through cloning process. The mtDNA haplogroup definitions were ascertained through the analysis of 22 mtDNA coding region polymorphisms. Screening all well-preserved samples, the Y-chromosomal haplogroups were defined in 33 Neolithic and Chalcolithic individuals. For the population genetic analyses, large sets of comparative aDNA, modern mtDNA, and Y-chromosome data were collated and used. The results were evaluated with a suite of population genetic analyses (Fst analysis, PCA, MDS, ASHA, GDM, TPC).rnIt can be inferred from the mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal ancient DNA data that at the advent of the Neolithic both farmer men and women, originated from the Near East, migrated into the Carpathian Basin. The first Neolithic Starčevo culture’s people had a remarkable mtDNA variability, which were largely transmitted to the succeeding populations. The hunter-gatherers show negligible contribution in the early farmers’ maternal and paternal gene pool. The emergence and spread of the Central European LBK can be genetically traced back to the western Carpathian Basin (population of the LBK in Transdanubia or LBKT), corresponding to most archaeological assumptions (Szécsényi-Nagy et al., 2014a). The regional LBK genetic datasets show homogeneity in the maternal gene pool across large distances in Europe (Szécsényi-Nagy et al., 2014b). The genetic effect of the Starčevo population was still significant in the maternal gene pool of the Late Neolithic of Central Germany. The Early Neolithic genetic substrate dominated the Neolithic of Transdanubia as well; only few hints indicate smaller infiltration or immigration events during the Vinča, LBKT, Sopot, and Balaton-Lasinja periods. The complete Transdanubian mtDNA dataset closely affiliated to the Neolithic populations in eastern Hungary (Keerl, 2014), and the Central European sixth-fourth millennia BC populations (published by Brandt et al., 2013). rnThe close maternal genetic affinity of the Neolithic Transdanubian populations to each other got new shades when the LBKT and Lengyel datasets were split into north and south groups. The here assumed north-south genetic difference in the Middle and Late Neolithic Transdanubia should be further investigated by whole genome studies and more balanced sample distribution. rnThe observed heterogeneity of the Starčevo and LBKT maternal gene pool coupled with Y-chromosomal homogeneity in the early farming populations suggest the residential rule of patrilocality and patrilineality in these communities. The paternal diversity though raised in the Late Neolithic, the high maternal diversity still support continuous social system from the Early Neolithic onward.rnThis study presents the first detailed population genetic survey, with an exceptionally large number of ancient DNA data of the sixth-fifth millennium BC western Carpathian Basin, which was a corridor on the Continental Route of the European Neolithisation. Even if the described results in this thesis mark a milestone in the archaeogenetic research of the Carpathian Basin’s prehistory, several questions remain open for further ancient genomic analyses.